province of Khouzestan can be basically divided into two regions, the
rolling hills and mountainous regions north of the Ahwaz Ridge, and the
plains and marsh lands to its south. The area is irrigated by the
Karoun, Karkheh, Jarahi and Maroun rivers. The northern section
maintains a Persian (Lur, Bakhtiari, Khuzi) majority, while the southern
section had an Arabic speaking majority until the great flood of job
seekers from all over Iran inundated the oil and commerce centers on the
coasts of the Persian Gulf since the 1940s. Presently, the Arabs are
predominate only in the countryside of the southern section of the
province that was, until the late 1920s known as Arabistan.
Khouzestan has great potentials for agricultural expansion, which is
almost unrivaled by the country's other provinces. Large and permanent
rivers flow over the entire territory contributing to the fertility of
the land. Karun, Iran's most effluent river, 850 kilometers long, flows
into the Persian Gulf through this province. The agricultural potential
of most of these rivers, however, and particularly in their lower
reaches, is hampered by the fact that their waters carry salt, the
amount of which increases as the rivers flow away from the source
Mountains and hills. In case of the Karun, a single tributary river,
Rud-i Shur "Salty River" that flows into the Karun above Shushtar
contributes most of the salt that the river carries. As such, the
freshness of the Karun waters can be greatly enhanced if the Rud-i Shur
could be diverted away from the Karun. The same applies to the Jarahi
and Karkheh in their lower reaches. Only the Marun is exempt from this.
The climate of Khouzestan is generally hot and occasionally humid,
particularly in the south, while winters are much more pleasant and dry.
Summertime temperatures routinely exceed 50 degrees Celsius (record
striking temperatures of over 60 degrees air temperature also occur with
up to 90 degrees surface temperature) and in the winter it can drop
below freezing, with occasional snowfall, all the way south to Ahwaz.
Khouzestan province is known to master the hottest temperatures on
record for a populated city anywhere in the world. Many sandstorms and
dust storms are frequent with the arid and dessert style terrains.
Ahvaz has long, hot summers and mild, short winters. Summertime
temperatures routinely exceed 50 degrees Celsius; the maximum
temperature in summer could soar up to 65 degrees Celsius with many
sandstorms and dust storms common during the summer period while in
winters the minimum temperature could fall around -5 degrees Celsius
with snow also present.
The annual rainfall is 195 mm.